Journal of the American Medical Association
109: 1271-4. 1937.
Coccygodynia was found to be accompanied by spasm of the levator ani and/or coccygeus muscles in sixty-four of sixty-nine patients seen by nine different observers.
Spasm of the piriformis muscle was found in thirty-one of thirty-three patients with pain in the supragluteal region or down the back of the thigh (Thiele's and Wilson's).
There is a sound anatomic basis for the causation of coccygodynia by spasm of the levator ani and coccygeus muscles and for the production of supragluteal pain and pain down the back of the thigh by spasm of the piriformis muscle.
In the treatment of these complaints by massage of the pelvic muscles involved, the technic outlined should be carefully followed.
In a series of eighty patients with coccygodynia or pain in the supragluteal region or down the back of the thigh who were treated by massage by eight different proctologists, 60 per cent were cured, 33.7 per cent were definitely improved and 6.3 per cent were unimproved.